JSX is actually quite straightforward: take 1 minute and read this, and you'll understand everything there is to know about this interesting alternative to templates.

Alternative title: "Living with JSX"

The Pragma

You declare this per-file or per-function to tell your transpiler (eg: Babel) the name of a function that should be called at runtime for each node (see Transpilation).

In the example below, we are saying "inject calls to an h() function for each node":

/** @jsx h */


If you're not using a transpiler yet, you should be. Writing, debugging, testing and running JavaScript is all more effective when using ES6/ES2015. Babel is the most popular and highly recommended transpiler out there, so I'll assume that's what you are using.

Along with converting your ES6/ES7+ syntax to JavaScript-of-today, Babel includes support for transpiling JSX ==right out of the box==. You don't need to add or change anything to use this feature.

It's easiest to see how this works by looking at a very simple example:

Before: (the code you write)

/** @jsx h */
let foo = <div id="foo">Hello!</div>;

After: (the code you run)

var foo = h('div', {id:"foo"}, 'Hello!');

You might be looking at that second code snippet thinking it wouldn't be so bad just building UI using functions...

This is why I started to get on board with JSX: if it disappeared off the face of the earth, writing the output by hand would still be pretty comfortable.

JSX is just a sugar for a syntax that's already pretty decent.

People even use it for whole projects: hyperscript

Let's Build a JSX Renderer

First, we'll need to define that h() function our transpiled code is calling.

You can call this whatever you want, I use h() because the original idea for this type of "builder" function was called hyperscript ("hypertext" + "javascript").

function h(nodeName, attributes, ...args) {
      let children = args.length ? [].concat(...args) : null;
      return { nodeName, attributes, children };

Ok, that was easy.

Unfamiliar with ES6/ES2015?

  • That ... in the arguments list is a rest param. It collects "the rest" of the arguments into an Array.
  • The concat(...args) bit is a spread operator: it takes that Array and expands it into arguments to concat(). The use of concat() here is to collapse any nested Arrays of child nodes.

Now we have these nested JSON objects our h() function spits out, so we end up with a "tree" like this:

  nodeName: "div",
  attributes: {
    "id": "foo"
  children: ["Hello!"]

So we just need a function that accepts that format and spits out actual DOM nodes:

function render(vnode) {
    // Strings just convert to #text Nodes:
    if (vnode.split) return document.createTextNode(vnode);

    // create a DOM element with the nodeName of our VDOM element:
    let n = document.createElement(vnode.nodeName);

    // copy attributes onto the new node:
    let a = vnode.attributes || {};
    Object.keys(a).forEach( k => n.setAttribute(k, a[k]) );

    // render (build) and then append child nodes:
    (vnode.children || []).forEach( c => n.appendChild(render(c)) );

    return n;

Sweet. It's not hard to understand how that works. If it helps, you can think of "Virtual DOM" as a very simple configuration for how to build a given DOM structure.

The benefit of virtual DOM is that it is extremely lightweight. Small objects referring to other small objects, a structure composed by easily optimizable application logic.

This also means it is not tied to any rendering logic or slow DOM methods.

Using JSX

We know that JSX is transformed into h() function calls.
Those function calls create a simple "Virtual" DOM tree.
We can use the render() function to make a matching "real" DOM tree.
Here's what that looks like:

// JSX -> VDOM:
let vdom = <div id="foo">Hello!</div>;

// VDOM -> DOM:
let dom = render(vdom);

// add the tree to <body>:
Partials, Iteration & Logic: No new Syntax

Instead of the limited concepts introduced by template languages, we have all of JavaScript.

"Partials" are a concept introduced by logicless/limited-logic template engines to re-use chunks of a view across differing contexts.

Iteration is something each new template language seems to re-invent (I'm as guilty as anyone). With JSX, there is no one-off syntax to learn: iterate how you would anywhere else in your JavaScript program. You pick the iteration style that best suits a given task: [].forEach(), [].map(), for and while loops, etc.

Logic, like iteration, is something template languages love to re-invent. On one hand, logicless templates provide a very poor means of embedding logic into a view: limited constructs like {{#if value}} push logic into a controller layer, encouraging bloat. This circumvents building a language for describing more complex logic, avoiding predictability & security pitfalls.

On the opposite end of the spectrum, engines that use code-generation - a technique that ranges from gross to unforgivable - often boast the ability to execute arbitrary JavaScript expressions for logic or even iteration. Here is a good enough reason to avoid this at all costs: your code is being ripped out of its original location (perhaps a module, a closure or within markup) and evaluated "somewhere else". That's not predictable or secure enough for me.

JSX allows all of of JavaScript's language features, without relying on generating grotesque code in a build step and without eval() & friends.

// Array of strings we want to show in a list:
let items = ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'];

// creates one list item given some text:
function item(text) {
    return <li>{text}</li>;

// a "view" with "iteration" and "a partial":
let list = render(
    { items.map(item) }

render() returns a DOM node (the <ul> in the above case), so we just need to place that into the DOM:


Putting it Together

Here's the full source for the little virtual DOM renderer and a view that uses it. A CodePen with some styling is available below.

const ITEMS = 'hello there people'.split(' ');

// turn an Array into list items: 
let list = items => items.map( p => <li> {p} </li> );
// view with a call out ("partial") to generate a list from an Array:
let vdom = (
    <div id="foo">
        <p>Look, a simple JSX DOM renderer!</p>
        <ul>{ list(ITEMS) }</ul>
// render() converts our "virtual DOM" (see below) to a real DOM tree:
let dom = render(vdom);
// append the new nodes somewhere:
// Remember that "virtual DOM"? It's just JSON - each "VNode" is an object with 3 properties.
let json = JSON.stringify(vdom, null, '  ');

// The whole process (JSX -> VDOM -> DOM) in one step:
    render( <pre id="vdom">{ json }</pre> )

Codepen Demo